Gross Motor Development

Approximate Age                 Skill

1 1/2 to 2 Years                • Stoops or squats and returns to standing position
                                • Jumps off small step leading with one foot with hand held
                                • Climbs up stairs both feet to each step, no hand support
                                • Climbs downstairs holding onto the wall or railing with both feet to each step
                                • Kicks ball 3 feet,  no catching and throwing balls

2 to 2 1/2                      •Can momentarily stand on one foot
                                •Will jump off small step  leading with one foot no hand held                                                                                   •Climbs up stairs both feet to each step, no hand                                                                                                                support
                                •Climbs downstairs holding a hand with both feet to each step
                                •Throws playground ball five feet, tennis ball seven feet

2 1/2 to 3                      • Can stand on one foot for three seconds
                                • Begins to hop on one foot                                                                                             
                                • Will jump off small step taking off and landing on two feet                                   
                                • Climbs up stairs both feet to each step, no hand support
                                • Climbs downstairs holding a hand with both feet to each step
                                • Throws playground ball five feet, tennis ball seven feet
                                • Begins to learn to catch playground ball, arms straight

3 to 3 1/2                      • Can stand on one foot for five seconds                                                                                
                                • Will jump forward 26 to 30 inches     
                                •Begins climbing up stairs alternating feet and no hand support                                 
                                • Begins  to climbs downstairs alternating feet, no hands
                                • Begins to pedal a bike
                                • Begins to learn to gallop leading with same foot
                                • Can hop on one foot five times consecutively
                                • Begins to learn to catch playground ball, elbows bent

3 1/2 to 4 years               • Can stand on either foot for six seconds                                                                                                               • Will jump forward 6 inches on one foot        
                                • Climbing up stairs alternating feet                                                                           -                                        • Climbs downstairs alternating feet, no hands
                                • Can hop on one foot eight times consecutively
                                • Throws tennis ball overhand and bounces ball to wall
                                • Begins to learn to catch tennis ball, elbows bent

4 to 4.5 years                  • Can stand on toes for 8 seconds or take four steps on balance beam                                    
                                • Will jump forward 12-16  inches on either foot        
                                • Mature climbing up stairs alternating feet                                                                                                             • Mature climbs downstairs alternating feet, no hands
                                • Can hop on one foot eight times consecutively
                                • Throws tennis ball overhand 10 feet and bounces ball to wall
                                • Continues to learn to catch tennis ball, elbows bent
                                • Can do 3 to 4 situps  and begins to learn somersault
4.5 to 5 years                  • Begins to learn to skip 8 to 10 steps
                                • Can balance on one foot for 10 seconds
                                • Jumps sideways, three cycles and can do 180 degree turn                                                       
                                • Will jump forward 12-16  inches on either foot, 36 inches both feet   
                                •Mature climbing up stairs alternating feet                                                                                                              • Mature climbs downstairs alternating feet, no hands
                                • Can hop on one foot eight times or more consecutively
                                • Throws tennis ball overhand 12 feet at a target
                                • Continues to learn to catch tennis ball, elbows bent
                                • Can do 3 to 4 situps  and begins to learn somersault




FINE MOTOR SKILLS

Approximate Age of Skill

1 year
        
Grasps cubes for 3 seconds
Opens a cardboard book  
Dumps object    
Places cube size objects and pegs in designated area    
Puts 1 shape in simple formboard        
Scribbles with crayon   
Builds tower of 2-3 1" cubes    
Removes both socks      
Grasps marker with fist, thumb on paper

1 1/ 2 years
        
Grasps a marker with fist and thumb up  
Places 2-3 shapes in simple formboard   
Stacks 5-6 1" cubes     
Turns pages in cardboard book one at time

2 - 2 1/2 years
        
Builds tower of 8 1" cubes
Imitates a vertical and horizontal line
Snips with a scissors
Strings two beads

2 1/2 - 3 years

Builds tower of 10 1" cubes
Strings 3-4 beads
Imitates a circls
Copies a vertical line, accurately

3 years - 3 1/2 years

Copies a horizontal line and circle accurately
Unbuttons buttons
Approximating an adult grasp on pencil

3 1/2 - 4 years

Cuts paper in two

4 years - 4 1/2 years

Adult grasp on pencil
Copies a cross,slant lines, and square accurately
Traces a line accurately
Cuts out a circle within 1/4 " of line
Buttons buttons

4 1/2 - 5 years

Copies an X, accurately
Draws straight line connecting two dots
Cuts a square within 1/4 " of line

5 years

Colors between lines covering 3/4 of space
Copies a triangle, accurately



DRESSING SKILLS

 

APPROXIMATE AGE of SKILL

1 Year
        
Cooperates in dressing
-Holds foot up for shoe
-Holds arm out for sleeve
-Puts hat on head and takes it off
-Likes to pull shoes off
-Pushes arms through sleeves, legs through pants
-Removes socks

Two Years

-Removes unfastened coat
-Purposefully removes shoes if laces are untied
-Helps push down garment
-Finds armholes in T-shirt

Two and 1/2 Years
        
-Removes pull down garment with elastic waist
-Tries to put on socks
-Puts on front button coat, shirt, or sweater
-Unbuttons one large button
-Three Years
-Puts on T shirt needing some assistance
-Puts on shoes without fasteners (may be on wrong foot)
-Puts on socks with some difficulty turning heel
-Independent with pull down garment
-Zips and unzips jacket without separating or inserting shank
-Needs assistance to remove T shirt
-Buttons large front buttons

Three and 1/2 Years
        
-Finds front of clothing most of time
-Snaps or hooks clothing in front
-Unzips front jacket zipper, separating zipper
-Puts on mittens
-Buttons series of 3 or 4 buttons
-Puts on boots
-Dresses with supervision

Four Years
        
-Removes T shirt independently
-Zips jacket zipper, inserting shank
-Puts on socks with appropriate heel placement
-Puts on shoes with little assistance
-Laces shoe
-Consistently knows front and back of clothing

Five Years
        
-Puts on pullover correctly
-Ties a knot
-Unties tie on apron or sash
-Dresses unsupervised

Six Years
        
-Ties bow knot in shoes